Use of Sarum

The Church of Salisbury shines as the sun in its orb among the Churches of the whole world in its divine service and those who minister it, and by spreading its rays everywhere makes up for the defects of others.

Bishop Giles de Bridport c.1256

This page has not been updated since 2012, at which time it often referred to hopes that the Ordinariate would adopt the Use of Sarum. From my present position, I am no longer concerned with this question. I will not indulge in “historical revisionism” but will simply add new elements and correct / delete bad links.

The Use of Sarum is the pre-Reformation liturgical form in the English Church. It is a use of the Roman Rite and has many similarities with the Dominican Rite. The origin of this liturgical usage is largely the Use of Rouen and a few imports from the Celtic and Mozarabic traditions.

Modern-day interest in Sarum is quite surprising, considering its abolition by the Anglican authorities in 1549 and its desuitude in the Latin Church from about the early seventeenth century. It is often denigrated by conservative Catholics, and people with ideas of reviving the old English liturgical tradition are passed off as eccentrics. As the photograph above, taken from a video recording, shows, Sarum is occasionally celebrated to this day and is assimilated to the extraordinary form of the Roman Rite and the Ambrosian Rite of northern Italy. It would certainly be encouraging to see Sarum as a kind of “extraordinary” form of Anglican liturgical patrimony.

It is tempting to construct an apologia for restoring this Use as a part of Anglican patrimony, but such a method would be counter-productive as I have discovered by writing articles on The Anglo Catholic and reading people’s reactions in the comments. Some are for and others are against, and both camps often through preconceived and mistaken ideas. Such “received ideas” include thinking that Sarum is “way over the top”, too complex for anything other than occasional use in a cathedral, and, in particular, simply being an aesthetic backwash for English rites more or less based on the Prayer Book. It is also tempting to see Sarum as a pragmatic solution to solving the differences of liturgical usage in the Anglican world. Like the Dominican, Bragan or Ambrosian rites, not to mention Paris and Lyons in France, Sarum is a variant of the Roman Rite with an integrity of its own.

We can also remind ourselves that the intention in the late 1960’s and 1970’s was to crush all liturgical rites in the RC Church and replace them with the modern Roman rite, and introduce similar reforms even in the Oriental Churches. It was to be a repeat performance of 1549 and 1552, but this movement of deconstruction was halted by the appointment of Archbishop Bugnini to other duties in the Church, a number of steps by John Paul II to emancipate clergy and faithful attached to the older form of the Roman Rite and the present situation under Benedict XVI.

I doubt that Sarum could be revived on a large scale or be made an official liturgy of the future Catholic Anglican personal Ordinariates, but I am convinced it should be a reference in much the same way as the extraordinary form of the Roman rite will be the standard for a gradual process of reform and restoration of the liturgy by slowly transforming the ordinary form promulgated by Paul VI. A few of us would opt to celebrate Mass according to the Sarum Use in private and on special occasions with the lay faithful.

As suggested in the final sentence of the preceding paragraph, there is a pastoral dimension to the introduction or reintroduction of any “foreign” liturgical form. It has to be done gradually and without force. In many situations, the idea is best forgotten and it would be wiser in these circumstances to stick with a liturgical form that is familiar to the faithful, and transform it slowly, progressively, and only as truly necessary.

Sarum liturgical books are hard to find, and when they do turn up as rare books in second-hand bookshops, the asking price is often high. The Latin edition by Dickinson and the English editions by Warren and Pearson are available from the Internet in pdf format. It suffices to collate the pages into a DTP programme and bind the books. Work is being done to publish Sarum texts and the plainchant books for both the Mass and the Office.

This part of my site is dedicated to promoting the Use of Sarum and helping readers to understand its significance in the Anglican patrimony as a liturgical standard for supplementing familiar Anglican rites and usages, the Prayer Book in particular.

I will add files to this page from time to time, and will also collate valuable material from my Sarum e-mail list and its archives.

 

Facebook groups

Use of Sarum with 448 members as of September 2016. Another group worth joining is Medieval Catholicism and Culture with 2,569 members.

 

Blog posts on Sarum and Liturgy

·         Sarum

·         Liturgy

Further reflections

·         Sarum: Answers to a Few Difficulties

·         Sarum Missal in English

·         The Future Liturgy of an Anglican Ordinariate: Why not Sarum?

·         The Hermeneutic of Continuity in Anglicanism and the Reform of the Reformation

·         Four Riddel Posts Do Not Constitute the Sarum Rite

·         Unity from Diversity

 

To study the Use of Sarum

I recommend the following links to articles about Sarum (academic and historical):

·         View an entire Mass in this rite (Purification 1997 at Merton College, Oxford)

·         New Advent Encyclopaedia article

·         Article by Canon J. Robert Wright

·         Order of Mass in Latin

·         The Sarum Missal – a good link for the Latin and English texts for the Order of Mass

·         Russian Orthodox version

·         A link with some pictures of Dearmer style / Sarum altars

·         The Easter Sepulcre Ceremony

·         Wikipedia also has a good article – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarum_Rite.

·         New Liturgical Movement articles on the Use of Sarum

·         Sarum and Parisian Liturgical Colours

 

Files to copy onto your hard disk

Right button of your mouse – Save target as…

·         Internet Archive Search: Sarum – A primary source for scanned material in different formats

·         Church of Sarum – uncorrected scan of a 19th century translation of the Order of Mass with explanation

·         J. Wickham Legg version of the Latin Sarum Missal (uncorrected scan and quite garbled)

·         Instructions for Low Mass – taken from the Pearson English version

·         Another Order of Mass in Latin

·         Masses of the Dead in Latin (Dickinson)

·         Compline in English I

·         Compline in English II

·         Order of Mass in Latin of the York Use

·         The Sarum Office with Chant (Latin)

·         The Sarum Lectionary – MS Word for downloading. Alternatively, you can download the text version and do your own page setup.

 

Practical Sarum Revival work – Victorian Ritualism and in our own time : links to choral groups, interested laymen and priests

Victorian Ritualist era

[Note: Percy Dearmer did not attempt to revive the Use of Sarum, but to adapt the Prayer Book by the introduction of Sarum customs.]

·         English or Roman Use? by E. G. P. Wyatt, MA – the 19th century Ritualist attempt at reviving the Sarum Use in the Anglican Church

·         Percy Dearmer (1867-1936)

·         Project Canterbury article on Percy Dearmer

·         Percy Dearmer’s The Parson’s Handbook

·         The Alcuin Club

·         Anglican Ritualism – to some extent favoured the revival of Sarum

Contemporary

·         Newspaper article on the Sarum choral group

·         The Sarum choral group’s website

·         Sarum Mission – an Anglican lay initiative

·         Fr. Finnegan on the canonical status of the Sarum Use in the RC Church (this priest celebrated the famous Sarum Masses in Oxford back in 1997.

·         Sarum Candelmas – first of a series

·         Catholic World News report on the Sarum Mass celebrated in 2000 by a Scottish Roman Catholic bishop

·         Another report on the same Mass

·         ‘British Museum Religion’ – blog article

·         The Tallis Scholars recording of the Missa in Gallicantu

·         Sarum Chants from St. Hilarion Orthodox Monastery

·         Photos of the York Use at All Saints, North Street

·         English Lenten Array photos

·         Medieval Mass Programme of the Gild of Clerks

·         Medieval Mass reconstruction – not Sarum but an old Danish use

 

6 Responses to Use of Sarum

  1. I wonder if you have seen the satiricial The Low Churchman’s Guide to the Solemn High Mass’s opinion on The Sarum Use (http://lowchurchmanguide.tumblr.com/post/57155307892/the-sarum-use) – which I thought might be of interest to you.

  2. Kevin King says:

    The Low Churchman is mid-informed, and really must read his history before attacking ancient and perfectly legal catholic traditions of the Church of England. The altar, its apparel, and the apparel and vestments of the sacred ministers as appointed in the BCP of 1549 have never been repealed.
    Whilst the Sarum Missal is perhaps not in keeping with reformed tradition, eurcharistict vestments and orderly chancels are. The word “catholic” is referred to many, many times in the BCP, the term Protestant isn’t mentioned once.

    So perhaps these low church puritans would like to surrender stained glass windows, colourful stoles, candles and organs. In its place they can celebrate the Lords Supper in a de-sanctified plain, bare church, on a bare old wooden table, with a dirty surplice ( even that is Romish).

    And for me, well I’ll take High Mass, Benediction, and Solemn Evensong any day. In fact, I’m a lapsed Catholic, converted from Anglicansim so I can’t have any of it. Oh dear!

    • I think you have missed the point about the Low Churchman – it’s a satire blog. I suppose there are “puritans” around, but I take no notice.

      If you are a lapsed Catholic, I would say you can go where you want. It’s a free world!

  3. Kevin King says:

    Thank you for correcting me Father. I have been so used to insults and liberalism, that I considers it another inside attack on the usages of the CofE.

    As I married outside the Roman Church, and my wife would never have the marriage blessed in the Catholic Church, I cannot receive the Sacraments in the Roman Church until this is amended. I have been told this by the local catholic priest.

    And I really don’t know if I could return to the Anglican Church, – I’m still very fond of the idea, however I feel that day by day the Cof E is becoming less of an Eccesia and more of a secular, anything goes club. As a teenager I was indeed honoured to serve at the altar of a magnificent parish church. I recently popped by, and was shocked to see the altar (a wooden Mensa) without a frontal, the six candles that stood on the reados had gone and the cruxifix which really grabbed ones attention to the altar and our Lords sacrifice was hidden behind an evangelical banner.

    The church had a new vicar who was at one point incumbent in one of the most Protestant churches in Norwich, he had been moved to Cornwall into what was an Anglo Catholic Church. A receipt for disaster.

    Still, that’s another story. Very interesting blog Father, keep up the good work!

  4. Pingback: A Case for the Restoration of the Sarum Rite in the Roman Catholic Church | Random Conjectures

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